Main GATE-related publications produced by members of the OpenGATE collaboration

Only the GATE-related articles published by the members of the OpenGATE collaboration are listed here.


  • Sarrut D, Bardiès M, Boussion N, Freud N, Jan S, Létang JM, Loudos G, Maigne L, Marcatili S, Mauxion T, Papadimitroulas P, Perrot Y, Pietrzyk U, Robert C, Schaart D, Visvikis D, Buvat I. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. Med. Phys. 41(6) : 064301, 2014 (PDF)
  • Cuplov V, Buvat I, Pain F, Jan S. Extension of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation package to model bioluminescence and fuorescence imaging. J. Biomed. Optics 19:026004, doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.2.026004, 2014 (PDF)
  • Pietrzyk U, Zakhnini A, Axer M, Sauerzapf S, Benoit D, Gaens M. EduGATE – basic examples for educative purpose using the GATE simulation platform. Z. Med. Phys. 23 (2013) 65-70
  • Jan S, Benoit D, Becheva E, Carlier T, Cassol F, Descourt P, Frisson T, Grevillot L, Guigues L, Maigne L, Morel C, Perrot Y, Rehfeld N, Sarrut D, Schaart DR, Stute S, Pietrzyk U, Visvikis D, Zahra N, Buvat I. GATE V6: a major enhancement of the GATE simulation platform enabling modelling of CT and radiotherapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 56 (2011) 881-901 (PDF)
  • Jan S, Santin G, Strul D, Staelens S, Assié K, Autret D, Avner S, Barbier R, Bardies M, Bloomfield PM, Brasse D, Breton V, Bruyndonckx P, Buvat I, Chatziioannou AF, Choi Y, Chung YH, Comtat C, Donnarieix D, Ferrer L, Glick SJ, Groiselle CJ, Guez D, Honore PF, Kerhoas-Cavata S, Kirov AS, Kohli V, Koole M, Krieguer M, van der Laan DJ, Lamare F, Largeron G, Lartizien C, Lazaro D, Maas MC, Maigne L, Mayet F, Melot F, Merheb C, Pennacchio E, Perez J, Pietrzyk U, Rannou FR, Rey M, Schaart DR, Schmidtlein CR, Simon L, Song TY, Vieira JM, Visvikis D, Van de Walle R, Wiers E, Morel C. GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT. Phys. Med. Biol. 49 (2004) 4543-4561 (PDF)
  • Strul D, Santin G, Lazaro D, Breton V, Morel C. GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission): a PET/SPECT general-purpose simulation platform. Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 125 (2003) 75-79 (PDF)
  • Santin G, Strul D, Lazaro D, Simon L, Krieguer M, Vieira M, Breton V, Morel C. GATE: A Geant4-based simulation platform for PET, SPECT integrating movement and time management. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50 (2003) 1516-1521 (PDF)


  • Santin G, Staelens S, Taschereau R, Descourt P, Schmidtlein CR, Simon L, Visvikis D, Jan S, Buvat I. Evolution of the GATE project: new results and developments. Nucl. Physics B 172 (2007) 101-103 (PDF)
  • Buvat I, Lazaro D. Monte Carlo simulations in emission tomography and GATE: an overview. Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. 569 (2006) 323-329 (PDF)
  • Assié K, Breton V, Buvat I, Comtat C, Jan S, Krieguer M, Lazaro D, Morel C, Rey M, Santin G, Simon L, Staelens S, Strul D, Vieira JM, Van de Walle R. Monte Carlo simulation in PET and SPECT instrumentation using GATE. Nucl. Instr. Meth. A527 (2004) 180-189 (PDF)


  • Strydhorst J, Buvat I. Redesign of the GATE PET coincidence sorter. Phys Med Biol 61 (2016) N522-N531.
  • Pham QT, Anne A, Bony M, Delage E, Donnarieix D, Dufaure A, Gautier M, Lee S B, Micheau P, Montarou G, Perrot Y, Shin J I, Incerti S, Maigne L. Coupling of Geant4-DNA physics models into the GATE Monte Carlo platform: Evaluation of radiation-induced damage for clinical and preclinical radiation therapy beams. Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. with Mater. Atoms 353 (2015) 46–55.
  • Martínez-Rovira I, Jouvie C, Jan S. Implementation of biological washout processes within GATE/Geant4-A Monte Carlo study in the case of carbon therapy treatments. Med Phys 42 (2015) 1773. doi: 10.1118/1.4914449.
  • Baldacci F, Mittone A, Bravin A, Coan P, Delaire F, Ferrero C, S Gasilov, Letang J-M, Sarrut D, Smekens F, Freud N. A track length estimator method for dose calculations in low-energy x-ray irradiations: implementation, properties and performance. Z Med Phys. 25 (2015) 36-47.
  • Smekens F, Létang JM, Noblet C, Chiavassa S, Delpon G, Freud N, Rit S, Sarrut D. Split exponential track length estimator for Monte-Carlo simulations of small-animal radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol. 59 (2014) 7703-7715
  • Mittone A, Baldacci F, Bravin A, Brun E, Delaire F, Ferrero C, Gasilov S, Freud N, Letang J-M, Sarrut D, Smekens F, Coan P. An efficient numerical tool for dose deposition prediction applied to synchrotron medical imaging and radiation therapy. J Synchrotron Radiat. (2013) 785-92
  • Rannou FR, Vega-Acevedo N, El Bitar Z. A parallel computational model for GATE simulations. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 112 (2013) 673-683
  • Descourt P, Carlier T, Du Y, Song X, Buvat I, Frey EC, Bardies M, Tsui BM, Visvikis D. Implementation of angular response function modeling in SPECT simulations with GATE. Phys. Med. Biol. 55 (2010) N253-66.
  • Rault E, Staelens S, Van Holen R, De Beenhouwer J, Vandenberghe S. Fast simulation of yttrium-90 bremsstrahlung photons with GATE. Med. Phys. 37 (2010) 2943-2950
  • Van der Laan DJ, Schaart DR, Maas CM, Beekman FJ, Bruyndonckx R, van Eijk CWE. Optical simulation of monolithic scintillator detectors using GATE/GEANT4. Phys. Med. Biol. 55 (2010) 1659-1675
  • Rehfeld NS, Stute S, Apostolakis J, Soret M, Buvat I. Introducing improved voxel navigation and fictitious interaction tracking in GATE for enhanced efficiency. Phys. Med. Biol. 54 (2009) 2163-2178
  • Taschereau R, Chatziioannou AF. Compressed voxels for high-resolution phantom simulations in GATE. Mol. Imaging Biol. 10 (2008) 40-47
  • De Beenhouwer J, Staelens S, Vandenberghe S, Lemahieu I. Acceleration of GATE SPECT simulations. Med. Phys. 35 (2008) 1476-1485
  • De Beenhouwer J, Staelens S, Kruecker D, Ferrer L, D'Asseler Y, Lemahieu I, Rannou FR. Cluster computing software for GATE simulations. Med. Phys. 34 (2007) 1926-1933
  • Staelens S, De Beenhouwer J, Kruecker D, Maigne L, Rannou F, Ferrer L, D'Asseler Y, Buvat I, Lemahieu I. GATE: improving the computational efficiency. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 569 (2006) 341-345




  • Chen Y, Liu B, O'Connor JM, Didier CS, Glick SJ. Characterization of scatter in cone-beam CT breast imaging: Comparison of experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. Med. Phys. 36 (2009) 857-869
  • Taschereau R, Chow PL, Chatziioannou AF. Monte Carlo simulations of dose from microCT imaging procedures in a realistic mouse phantom. Med. Phys. 33 (2006) 216-224
  • Taschereau R, Chow PL, Cho JS, Chatziioannou AF. A microCT X-ray head model for spectra generation with Monte Carlo simulations. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 569 (2006) 373-377


  • El Kanawati W, Létang J-M, Dauvergne D, Pinto M, Sarrut D, Testa E, Freud N. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt γ-ray emission in proton therapy using a specific track length estimator. Phys. Med. Biol. 60 (2015) 8067–8086 (PDF)
  • Grevillot L, Stock M, Vatnitsky S. Evaluation of beam delivery and ripple filter design for non-isocentric proton and carbon ion therapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 60 (2015) 7985-8005.
  • Robert C, Fourrier N, Sarrut D, Stute D, Gueth P, Grevillot L, Buvat I. PET-based dose delivery verification in proton therapy: a GATE based simulation study of five PET system designs in clinical conditions. Phys. Med. Biol. 58 (2013) 6867-6885.
  • Robert C, Dedes G, Battistoni G, Böhlen TT, Buvat I, Cerutti F, Chin MPW, Ferrari A, Gueth P, Kurz C, Lestand L, Mairani A, Montarou G, Nicolini R, Ortega PG, Parodi K, Prezado Y, Sala PR, Sarrut D, Testa E. Distributions of secondary particles in proton and carbon-ion therapy: a comparison between GATE/Geant4 and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes. Phys. Med. Biol. 58 (2013) 2879-2899.
  • Saeedzadeh E, Sarkar S, Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard A, Ay MR, Khosravi HR, Loudos G. 3D calculation of absorbed dose for 131I-targeted radiotherapy: a Monte Carlo study. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry. 150 (2012) 298-305.
  • Seravalli E, Robert C, Bauer J, Stichelbaut F, Kurz C, Smeets J, Van Ngoc Ty C, Schaart DR, Buvat I, Parodi K, Verhaegen F. Monte Carlo calculations of positron emitter yields in proton radiotherapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 57 (2012) 1659-1673.
  • Grevillot L, Bertrand D, Dessy F, Freud N, Sarrut D. GATE as a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo platform for the evaluation of proton pencil beam scanning treatment plans.Phys Med Biol. 13 (2012) 4223-44
  • Grevillot L, Bertrand D, Dessy F, Freud N, Sarrut D. A Monte Carlo pencil beam scanning model for proton treatment plan simulation using GATE/GEANT4. Phys Med Biol. 56 (2011) 5203-5219
  • Grevillot L, Frisson T, Maneval D, Zahra N, Badel JN, Sarrut D. Simulation of a 6 MV Elekta Precise Linac photon beam using GATE/GEANT4. Phys. Med. Biol. 56 (2011) 903-918
  • Grevillot L, Frisson T, Zahra N, Bertrand D, Stichelbaut F, Sarrut D. Optimization of GEANT4 settings for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning simulations using GATE. NIMB 20 (2010) 3295–3305


  • Spirou SV, Makris D, Loudos G. Does the setup of Monte Carlo simulations influence the calculated properties and effect of gold nanoparticles in radiation therapy? Phys. Med. (2015) S1120-1797.
  • Bouzid D, Bert J, Dupre PF, Benhalouche S, Pradier O, Boussion N, Visvikis D. Monte-Carlo dosimetry for intraoperative radiotherapy using a low energy x-ray source. Acta Oncol. (2015) 1-8
  • Marcatili S, Villoing D, Mauxion T, McParland BJ, Bardiès M. Model-based versus specific dosimetry in diagnostic context: Comparison of three dosimetric approaches. Med Phys 42 (2015) 1288. doi: 10.1118/1.4907957
  • Mauxion T, Barbet J, Suhard J, Pouget JP, Poirot M, Bardiès M. Improved realism of hybrid mouse models may not be sufficient to generate reference dosimetric data. Med. Phys. 40 (2013) DOI: 10.1118/1.4800801
  • Perrot Y, Degoul F, Auzeloux P, Bonnet M, Cachin F, Chezal JM, Donnarieix D, Labarre P, Moins N, Papon J, Rbah-Vidal L, Vidal A, Miot-Noirault E, Maigne L. Internal dosimetry through GATE simulations of preclinical radiotherapy using a melanin-targeting ligand. Phys. Med. Biol. 59 (2014) 2183-2198
  • Maigne L, Perrot Y, Schaart DR, Donnarieix D, Breton V. Comparison of GATE/GEANT4 with EGSnrc and MCNP for electron dose calculations at energies between 15 keV and 20 MeV. Phys. Med. Biol. 56 (2011) 811-827
  • Thiam CO, Breton V, Donnarieix D, Habib B, Maigne L. Validation of a dose deposited by low energy photons using GATE/GEANT4. Phys. Med. Biol. 53 (2008) 3039-3055
  • Ferrer L, Chouin B, Bitar A, Lisbona A, Bardies M. Implementing dosimetry in GATE: dose point kernel validation with GEANT4 4.8.1. Cancer Biother. Radiopharm. 22 (2007) 125-129
  • Taschereau R, Chatziioannou AF. Monte Carlo simulations of absorbed dose in a mouse phantom from 18-fluorine compounds. Med. Phys. 34 (2007) 1026-1036
  • Visvikis D, Bardies M, Chiavassa S, Danford C, Kirov A, Lamare F, Maigne L, Staelens S, Taschereau R. Use of the GATE Monte Carlo package for dosimetry applications. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 569 (2006) 335-340


  • Moreau M, Buvat I, Ammour L, Chouin N, Kraeber-Bodéré F, Chérel M, Carlier T. Assessment of a fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction method for preclinical PET with iodine-124.Phys Med Biol. 60 (2015) :2475-2491
  • Aguiar P, Pino F, Silva-Rodríguez J, Pavía J, Ros D, Ruibal A, El Bitar Z. Analytical, experimental, and Monte Carlo system response matrix for pinhole SPECT reconstruction. Med Phys. (2014) in press.
  • El Bitar Z, Lazaro D, Breton V, Hill D, Buvat I. Fully 3D Monte Carlo image reconstruction in SPECT using functional regions. Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. 569 (2006) 399-403
  • Vandenberghe S, Staelens S, Byrne C, Soares E, Lemahieu I, Glick S. Reconstruction of 2D PET data with Monte Carlo generated system matrix for generalized natural pixels. Phys. Med. Biol. 51 (2006) 3105-3125
  • Lazaro D, El Bitar Z, Breton V, Hill D, Buvat I. Fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in SPECT: a feasibility study. Phys. Med. Biol. 5050 (2005) 3739-3754
  • Lazaro D, Breton V, Buvat I. Feasibility and value of fully 3D Monte Carlo reconstruction in single-photon emission computed tomography. Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. 527 (2004) 195-200


  • Strydhorst J, Carlier T, Dieudonné A, Conti M, Buvat I. A GATE evaluation of the sources of error in quantitative 90Y PET. Med. Phys. 43 (2016) in press
  • Vauclin S, Michel C, Buvat I, Doyeux K, Edet-Sanson A, Vera P, Gardin I, Hapdey S. Monte-Carlo simulations of clinically realistic respiratory gated (18)F-FDG PET: application to lesion detectability and volume measurements. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 118 (2015) 84-93. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2014.10.003
  • Bopp C, Colin J, Cussol D, Finck Ch, Labalme M, Rousseau M, Brasse D. Proton computed tomography from multiple physics processes. Phys Med Biol. 21 (2013) 7261-76.
  • Papadimitroulas P, Loudos G, Le Maitre A, Hatt M, Tixier F, Efthimiou N, Nikiforidis GC, Visvikis D, Kagadis GC. Investigation of realistic PET simulations incorporating tumor patient's specificity using anthropomorphic models: creation of an oncology database. Med Phys. 40 (2013): 112506.
  • Stute S, Vauclin S, Necib H, Grotus N, Tylski P, Rehfeld NS, Hapdey S, Buvat I. Realistic and efficient modeling of radiotracer heterogeneity in Monte Carlo simulations of PET images with tumors. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Med. 59 (2012) 113-122
  • Stute S, Carlier T, Cristina K, Noblet C, Martineau A, Hutton B, Barnden L, Buvat I. Monte Carlo simulations of clinical PET and SPECT scans: impact of the input data on the simulated images. Phys. Med. Biol. 56 (2011) 6441-6457
  • Rehfeld NS, Vauclin S, Stute S, Buvat I. Multidimensional B-spline parameterization of the detection probability of PET systems to improve the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations. Phys. Med. Biol. 55 (2010) 3339-3361
  • I. Buvat I and I. Castiglioni – Monte Carlo simulations in SPET and PET. Q. J. Nucl. Med. 46 (2002) 48-61.

GENERAL REFERENCES (not produced by the collaboration)

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  • R. Lecomte at al. – Design and Engineering Aspects of a high resolution Positron Tomograph for small animal imaging. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41 (4) (1994) 1446-52.
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  • M. Casey and R. Nutt – A multicrystal two dimensional BGO detector block system for positron emission tomography. IEEE Transactions Nucl. Sci. 33 (1986) 460-3.
  • G. F. Knoll – Radiation detection and measurement. John Wiley \& Sons , New York (1979).